5G is 5th generation cellular network technology. It is likely to be introduced by 2020. 5G promises a noticeable growth in data speed as well as significantly decrease the latency time of cellular network. This post will give you a glimpse of what actually is this, how its architecture works, its characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
Table of Contents
What is 5G Cellular Network Technology
G in 5G cellular network means generation of wireless technology. 1G is known as analog cellular with a speed of 2.4kbps. 2G is known for technologies such as CDMA, GSM, and TDMA. These were the first generation of digital cellular technologies with a speed of 64kbps.
3G technologies brought speeds from 200kbps to a few megabits per second. First mobile broadband was introduced in this generation. Then came 4G cellular network technologies which were primarily designed for data such as Wi-MAX and LTE.
Fig. 1 – Development From 1G to 5G Cellular Network Technology
5G cellular network technology is the next generation of mobile internet connectivity, offering more reliable and faster connections on smart phones and other devices than ever before. 5G might enable driverless cars, delivery drones, and it may even replace the Wi-Fi in your home and office.
As highlighted, it will use less power than 4G. This means that your battery life will definitely improve and you need not to charge your phone every day.
How 5G Cellular Network Technology Architecture Works
To better understand how it functions, let us understand how a cell phone works. Cell phones are essentially and basically two-way radios. They convert your voice into digital data that can send radio waves.
Now a day, People use more data in the form of images and videos on their devices. While the bands of radio frequency will remain same for these devices which carriers have always been using, it may slow down connections for all. So to overcome the problem of lack of bandwidth, 5G cellular network will use millimeter waves instead of radio waves.
This technology uses a system of cell sites as the other networks do. Territory is divided into sectors by these cell sites and then encoded data is sent through radio waves. Each cell site must have a connection to a wired or wireless network backbone.
The encoding of 5G network is as similar to 4G LTE and is called OFDM (Orthogonal frequency Division Multiplexing). However, to achieve greater flexibility and lower latency as compared to LTE, the air interface will be designed accordingly.
Fig. 2 – Working of 5G Cellular Network Technology
Earlier, big cell phone towers were built by the companies to circulate cell signals throughout a geographical area. Now, rather than constructing towers, Equipment called small cells will just be installed on buildings and existing telephone lines by the service providers.
To valve into the signal, customers will use phones or wireless modems to connect. So, more base stations will be required in closer propinquity to serve more people.
Characteristics of 5G Cellular Network Technology
The characteristics of 5G Cellular Network Technology are as follows:
- Greater Internet Speed: One of the obvious features of the 5G network is fast speed. A movie can easily be downloaded in few seconds.
- Greater Capacity: While internet speed is high, the 5G networks’ device handling capacity will be high.
- Reduced Latency: Reduced Latency means an instant response from the network and devices using that network.
- Lower Battery Consumption: High-speed networks usually lead to poor battery life of a device. However, 5G cellular networks will offer better battery life.
- Allow access to parallel multiple services: Because of High Bandwidth, the 5G cellular network will offer support to multiple applications at the same time.
Fig. 3 – Characteristics of 5G Cellular Network Technology
In addition to the above advantages, it will also change the way we use our cellular network for other services. Data sharing in 5 G cellular network will be very easy. All the roaming would be exempt from the tariff plans. The rates of the call would not be different area to area.
Advantages of 5G Cellular Network Technology
5th generation network will benefit all group of people like doctors, engineers, teachers, governing bodies, students and even a common man. 5G technology has many advantages and some of these are as below:
- 5 G cellular network will be more efficient and well-organized.
- 5 G cellular networks will be able to provide uniform, uninterrupted, and consistent connectivity across the world.
- Bandwidth of 5 G cellular network is high and therefore all users will get increased bandwidth.
- High Bandwidth means fast speed i.e. a movie can be downloaded in few seconds.
- Because of Fast Network speed, more and more tasks are being transitioned from the world of computers to the world of smart devices.
- 5 G cellular network architecture handoff is so smooth that it does not have any effect on data transfer even on change of cell phone.
- 5 G has broadcasting data in Gigabit which can easily support more than 60,000 connections.
- Similar multiple services like you can know weather and location while talking with other person.
Fig. 4 – Advantages of 5G Cellular Network technology
Disadvantages of 5G Cellular Network Technology
5G Cellular network has following main disadvantages:
- High Cost: For starters, the initial subscription plans are likely to be more expensive than the ones currently available. However in long run, the 5 G subscription prices might come down.
- Skill Set: 5 G cellular networks requires a particular set of skills, hence only skilled engineers can install and maintain this network. As 5 G equipment are costly, this will increase the cost of deployment and maintenance.
- Expensive for common man: Most of the old devices are not competent to 5 G. Therefore, all of them should be replaced with new one. 5 G smart phones are costly. Common man may have to wait to use 5 G networks until and unless it become pocket friendly.
Author: Dinky Chugh, Academic