Friday, June 9, 2023
HomeDigital TechnologyDefinition About Computer I Parts I Working I Types I Applications

Definition About Computer I Parts I Working I Types I Applications

A Computer is an electronic device that is useful in processing, storing, and displaying information. The exact definition about computer is “an electronic device that performs quick calculations, manipulate given data in user’s desired format”. Humans first used mechanical calculators, such as the abacus and slide rule, to perform numerical calculations.


Definition About Computer

A computer is an electronic device, use to manipulate any given data or information in User’s desired format. Its functions are the storage, retrieval, and processing of data. We can use a computer to type documents, send an email, play games, and surf the Internet. Additionally, we can also edit and create spreadsheets, presentations, and movies.

A computer is a device which runs programs and deliver several solutions, using integrated hardware and software. There’s nothing a computer can’t do with the help of a program. It uses a string of binary digits to represent decimal numbers.

Basic Parts of Computer

Basic Parts of a Computer

The above figure shows a desktop computer with all its hardware parts: the  CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, Speakers, Mouse, and Printer.

How does the Computer work?

Computer works in three steps

  1. Input
  2. Process
  3. Output

In a computer system, input, storage space, processing, and output all are combined. These four are the most important parts of a computer.

Computer Memory, also known as RAM(Random Access Memory), is the location to store the information. Information is stored in bits in a computer system which is a computer’s smallest storage unit.


Input is the information we offer to the computer. We offer the data through the computer’s input devices, which include the keyboard, mouse, microphone, and others. When we type something on a keyboard, for example, we are providing input to the computer. Below is the image of the keyboard and mouse.

Keyboard and Mouse

Keyboard and Mouse

Storage Space

This is the location, also known as Computer Memory, used to save and store our data. In addition to that, using hard drive, we can store files and documents on a computer. Memory can be internal memory or external memory. RAM, or volatile internal memory, is a type of volatile memory. It stores data temporarily. Basically, when it is ready to be processed, it is loaded into RAM, and after processing, data is moved to storage. On the other hand, there is use of external memory to store data indefinitely until it crashes.

Random Access Memory

RAM(Random Access Memory)


The CPU, or Central Processing Unit, of the computer, handles the input processing. It is also known as the computer’s brain, and it is in charge of processing the data entered by the user. The computer’s brain works four-times faster than the human brain.


The Computer Monitor or Computer Screen is an output device, where we see the written input when we type or submit something using a keyboard. There are various sorts of computer output devices, like loudspeakers, projectors, printers, and many others. Below is the image of the output devices.

Output Devices

Output Devices

Computer Full Form

Originally, the word “computer” derived from the verb “compute” means to calculate. So, to keep it simple, a computer is an electronic instrument used to perform quick computations.

The computer is not an abbreviation. However, many people have given computers the entire form in order to demonstrate their inventiveness. The list of computer full forms is as follows:

Classification of a Computer

Computers can be classified in two ways depending on their Data handling capability and their size.

The computer can be classified into three categories based on its data handling capabilities:

  1. Analog Computer
  2. Digital Computer
  3. Hybrid Computer

Let us learn them one by one:

Analog Computer

Analog Computer

An analog computer is one that represents data as a variable with a continuous range of values. Analog computers were the first computers. Temperature, pressure, and voltage are examples of continuously changing parameters that may be measured using analog computers. Although analog computers are more adaptable than digital computers, they are generally less precise. In general, analog computers are very fast because they can solve most complex equations at the pace at which a signal passes through the circuit, which is frequently a fraction of the speed of light. On the other hand, they have a low level of precision, limited to three or four digits. Slide Rules, Differential Analyzer, Castle Clock are examples of Analog Computer.

Digital Computer

Digital Computer

The purpose of a digital computer is to do calculations and logical processes at a rapid rate. It takes raw data in the form of digits or binary numbers (zero and one) as input and processes it using instructions stored in its memory to generate output. Different applications can be employed in digital systems simply by altering the program, with no changes to the hardware required. Because the data is processed digitally, it has a high processing speed. The output is not impacted by noise, temperature, humidity, or other qualities of its components, resulting in improved reproducibility of results. All current computers, such as laptops and desktop computers, as well as smartphones that we use at home or at work, are digital devices.

Hybrid Computer

Hybrid Computer

The features of both analog and digital computers are combined in a hybrid computer. It’s as fast as an analog computer, but with the memory and precision of a digital computer. It has the ability to handle both continuous and discrete data. Before processing, it receives analog signals and converts them to digital form. As a result, it is commonly employed in specialized applications that process both analog and digital data. In petrol pumps, for example, a processor turns measurements of gasoline flow into amount and price. They’re also employed in airplanes, hospitals, and scientific research.

Types of computers based on the size

  1. Micro Computer
  2. Mini Computer
  3. Mainframe Computer
  4. Supercomputer

Micro Computer

Micro Computer

A Microcomputer

A microcomputer is a computer with a microprocessor as its core. A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the processor’s components.

Microcomputers are a subtype of personal computers. Personal computers are so named because they are meant for individuals or small companies Computers can be used for a wide range of purposes, including computer literacy, fun and games, programming etc. Desktop computers and laptops are examples of  Microcomputers. Below is the image of a microcomputer

Mini _Computer


They are miniature versions of mainframes. In most cases, they have the same computing power as their larger equivalents. The fundamental advantage of a tiny computer over a mainframe computer is that it is less expensive, smaller in size, and more reliable. It does not need to be kept cool and can be used at room temperature. These systems are commonly used as server systems on networks with personal computers as nodes in education, local government word processing, education, local government word processing, and business.

Mainframe Computers

Mainframe Computers

 Mainframe Computers

These computers are extremely large and provide the most computational capability. They can be connected to a vast number of peripherals. They are commonly employed in big computer networks, with the mainframe serving as the network’s model point. Satellites were utilized to connect them. The airline industry is an example of a Mainframe computer.




They are the most expensive computers available. These are large general-purpose computers with storage capacities of millions of bits per chip and the ability to execute more than 10,000 million instructions/ second. Weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling, physical simulation, and cryptographic algorithms are just a few of the activities that supercomputers are utilized for, and military and scientific agencies are big users.

Characteristics of Computer

Computers can be classified according to speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility, and memory.


The computer can process the date and output in fractions of seconds, ensuring that the user receives the information they need on time, allowing them to make the best judgments they can. A powerful computer has the ability to perform around 3 million computations per second.


Because of its fast processing speed, the computer’s precision is consistently high, preventing any errors. If there are any problems, its due to errors in the programmer’s instructions.


The computer’s output is very dependable, but only when the data that is passed as input to the computer and the program that gives instructions are both correct and dependable.

Storage Capacity

The computer has the capability of storing big amounts of data in small storage devices, which have the capacity to store massive amounts of data and make data retrieval simple.


The Computer carry out three basic procedures. It can access and accept data from the user using a variety of input-output devices. And also, uses data to execute fundamental arithmetic and logic operations as needed. It can provide the desired output in the desired format.


Once the instructions are fed into the computer, it runs on its own, with no human interaction, until the program’s execution is complete and the task is terminated by logical instructions.

Application of Computer

Following are some of the applications of computers:

  • Banking
  • Education
  • Industries
  • Entertainments
  • Hospitals
  • Data processing and many more.

A computer is a powerful instrument, used for teaching and learning, as well as processing results, student data, preparing questions, handouts, and notes.

Author’s View

The computer has already become an integral part of our daily lives. Technology has infiltrated almost every facet of our life. Moreover, Computers will continue to be useful in all fields till the end of time.

Read Also:
Computer Generation I Evolution I Images I Characteristics
Optical Computer – Components, Working Principle and Why We Need It
Chakrasthitha is a B.E (Medical Electronics) and has work experience in MatLab and Lab View Software as Design Engineer at BCS innovations and Manipal hospital as Biomedical Engineer. She is an author, editor and partner at Electricalfundablog.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

- Advertisment -

Most Popular


Recent Comments

Your SEO optimized title page contents