A Battery is an electrochemical system that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Battery-Cells are the most basic individual component of a battery.
In another words, it can also be defined as :
Battery is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electricity by using a galvanic cell.
We mentioned Galvanic cell. Do you know what is it? A Galvanic cell is a simple device consisting of two electrodes of unlike metals or its compounds (anode and cathode) and an electrolyte (usually acid/alkaline) solution.
I want to clear an ambiguity here. Batteries do not make electricity, they actually store it. It is therefore we can say that a battery is an electrical storage device.
When there is chemical reaction in the battery, electrical energy is either supplied or stored. In Dry cells, this chemical reaction happens only for a single life. Whereas in rechargeable batteries, this chemical reaction can be repeated many times.
Based on the nature of reversal of chemical reaction, it can be categorized as :
- Primary cell, and
- Secondary cell.
Primary Cell :
When the battery’s chemical reaction is irreversible, it is called a primary cell. In a primary cell, the chemical reaction eats away one of the electrodes, usually the negative electrode. When this happens, the electrode must be replaced or the cell must be discarded.
Secondary Cell :
When the battery’s chemical reaction is reversible, it is called a secondary cell. In a secondary cell, the electrodes and electrolyte are altered by the chemical action. This action takes place when the cell delivers current. A secondary cell may be restored to its original condition by forcing an electric current through it in the direction opposite to that of discharge.
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