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What is Artificial Intelligence AI – Introduction, Types and Application Areas

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is certainly going to impact our lives. Some say it will change the way we live for good while others think that it will lead to the end of human race. But actually what is this Artificial Intelligence? This post will give you a brief Introduction about AI, its application areas and Types.

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The term Artificial Intelligence was first coined by an American computer scientist named John McCarthy during a workshop at The Dartmouth College in 1956. It became a broad field in the present day that covers everything from RPA (Robotic Process Automation) to actual robotics.

It has gained lots of importance in recent times due to big data, or the increase in speed, size and variety of information (data) businesses which are now being collected no matter we opt for it or not.

1 John Mccarthy - The man who coined the term Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Fig. 1 – John Mccarthy – The man who coined the term Artificial Intelligence

AI can execute variety of tasks more efficiently and effectively than humans. It can perform task such as recognizing sequence in the data which enables businesses to increase more insight out of their information (data).

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence is the process(es) of reproduction of human intelligence by machines, mainly computer systems.

2 artificial intelligence AI

Fig. 2 – Artificial Intelligence (AI)

In other words, we can also say that AI is a technology which makes machines process or respond data like human.

These processes consist of learning, reasoning and self-correction. The learning includes how to achieve information and procedure for using the information and reasoning includes how to achieve approximate or exact conclusions using the procedure.

Principle areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications

A machine with Artificial Intelligence can do analysis, planning, communication, observation and ability to move and operate objects.

3 Artificial Intelligence AI Application Areas

Fig. 3 – Artificial Intelligence (AI) Application Areas

The segregation of AI can be done based upon the areas it is being used. Its key areas includes Expert Systems, Speech Recognition, Machine Vision, Natural Language Processing, Robotics, etc.

Types of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence is progressing from simple to self aware machines with following four types.

  • Reactive or Purely Reactive
  • Limited Memory
  • Theory of Mind
  • Self- Aware

1. Reactive or Purely Reactive

This is the most basic form of AI. It does not have memories or cannot use past experiences. It acts straightaway for what it sees. It doesn’t have perception of the world.

For example: Google’s Alpha Go

4 Reactive Artificial Intelligence

Fig. 4 – Reactive Artificial Intelligence

2. Limited Memory

This Artificial Intelligence system came into existence after Reactive AI. It can use past experiences to notify future decisions. In self-directed vehicles some of the decision-making functionality have been designed this way. It just has sufficient memory to make appropriate decisions and perform proper actions.

For example: self driving vehicles, chatbots (Apple’s Siri, Google Voice Assistant)

5 Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence

Fig. 5 – Limited Memory Artificial Intelligence

Note : – Chatbot is a software program that carries out a conversation through voice or textual means.

3. Theory of Mind

This type of AI is able to cop up with intentions, expectations and feelings. It can connect socially as well. They have ability to identify thoughts and emotions. It is next class of Intelligence. It is yet to be build completely.

For example: C-3P0 from Star Wars, Chitti- Robot (Bollywood movie)

6 C3PO in Star Wars

Fig. 6 – C3PO in Star Wars

4. Self- Aware

It is an extension of Theory of Mind. This type of AI system is aware of their internal states, can sense the feelings of others, can make presumptions too.

7 AVA in Ex-Machina

Fig. 7 – AVA in Ex-Machina

It is the future generations of machines: Super Intelligent, alert and attentive.

Example: Ava in the movie Ex Machina

Also read :

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Asynchronous Transmission – Communication Characteristics, Process of Data Flow, Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages and Applications of 4G Phone Network Technology

Ratna is a B.E (Computer Science) and has work experience in UK Mainframe IT industry. She is also an active Web Designer. She is an author, editor and core partner at Electricalfundablog.
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