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Graphics Card | How it Works | GPU | What is FPS | Improve FPS

About Graphics Card

A graphics card also referred to as a video card, Graphics Processing Unit, or display adapter, is an essential component in computer system. Its primary function is to handle the rendering and display of images, videos, and animations on a monitor or other output devices. By performing complex calculations and processing tasks specifically related to graphics, the graphics card ensures smooth and high-quality visuals in various applications, including gaming, video editing, and graphic design.

Graphics Card

With its dedicated memory and processing power, the graphics card offloads the graphics-related workload from the computer’s central processing unit (CPU). To establish a connection with the computer’s motherboard, graphics cards utilize expansion slots such as PCI Express. Moreover, they often incorporate their own cooling system to efficiently dissipate heat generated during operation.

Types of Graphics Card


There are various types of graphics cards available on the market today, each with its own characteristics and capabilities. Here are some common types:

Integrated Graphics

Integrated graphics refers to the graphics processing capability integrated into the computer’s motherboard or CPU. These graphics cards utilize the system’s RAM and are typically less powerful than dedicated graphics cards. They are suitable for basic tasks such as web browsing, word processing, and video playback.

Dedicated Graphics

Dedicated graphics cards are separate components that have their own GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) and dedicated memory. They offer higher performance and are designed for demanding tasks such as gaming, graphic design, and video editing. Dedicated graphics cards connect to the motherboard through expansion slots like PCI Express.

Entry-Level Graphics

Entry-level graphics cards are affordable options that provide a step up from integrated graphics. They offer improved performance and can handle casual gaming and multimedia tasks reasonably well. However, they may struggle with running the latest games at high settings or handling heavy workloads.

Mid-Range Graphics

Mid-range graphics cards strike a balance between price and performance. They offer good gaming performance and can handle moderate graphics-intensive tasks with smooth gameplay and decent quality settings. Mid-range cards are popular among gamers who want a solid gaming experience without breaking the bank.

High-End Graphics

High-end graphics cards are top-of-the-line models designed for enthusiasts and professionals who demand the highest levels of performance. These cards deliver exceptional gaming experiences, allowing for smooth gameplay at high resolutions and maximum quality settings. They are also suitable for demanding tasks such as 3D rendering, virtual reality, and content creation.

Workstation/Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

Workstation or GPU cards are specialized graphics cards tailored for professional applications such as CAD (Computer-Aided Design), video editing, 3D modeling, and scientific simulations. They offer enhanced performance, precision, and compatibility with professional software suites. These cards are commonly used by engineers, architects, and content creators.

External Graphics

External graphics cards, also known as eGPUs, are separate units that can be connected to a computer via a high-speed interface like Thunderbolt. They provide a means of boosting graphics performance on laptops or computers with limited upgrade options. eGPUs are popular among gamers and professionals who need portability without sacrificing graphics power.



Here are the features of Graphics Card:


The graphics card will carry its own memory which could range from 128MB to 2GB memory. More Ram is equal to higher resolutions, more colours on the screen and the best special effects.

Multiple Screen Support

Most of the new video cards have the capacity to connect two monitors into one card. For the purpose of video editing this feature is highly important and hardcore gamer craves that extra real estate too. The user can either see two different desktops or make two monitors into one desktop.

Gaming and Video Editing

The discrete graphics card is not reserved only for a gamer, but also for those users who use high-end video editing. The software also gets support as a high-quality graphics card to reduce the rendering time of an image also gives a high-definition environment.



With the help of different ports, the graphic card is connected to the monitor. But the ports must be present on both monitor and graphics card. There are three common ports which are used to connect them with a monitor – VGA, HDMI, DVI.

How Graphics Card Works?

Components of Graphics Card

A graphics card works by converting data from the computer into signals that can be interpreted by the monitor to produce images and videos. It consists of several key components that collaborate to execute this process:

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

The GPU is the heart of the graphics card. It is a specialized processor designed to handle complex calculations required for rendering graphics. The GPU consists of multiple cores or shader units that work in parallel to process large amounts of data simultaneously. This parallel processing capability enables efficient and fast rendering of graphics.

Video Memory (VRAM)

The graphics card has its own dedicated memory called VRAM. VRAM stores the textures, shaders, and other data necessary for rendering images and videos. Having dedicated VRAM allows the graphics card to quickly access and manipulate the data without relying heavily on the system’s main memory (RAM), resulting in improved performance.

Graphics Pipeline

The graphics pipeline is a series of stages through which the graphics card processes data to generate images. It includes stages such as geometry processing, vertex shading, rasterization, pixel shading, and output to the display. Each stage performs specific tasks, such as transforming 3D models, applying textures and lighting effects, and determining the final pixel colors. The graphics pipeline is optimized to efficiently process these tasks and generate the desired visual output.

Display Output

The graphics card sends the processed data to the monitor for display. It converts the digital information into analog or digital signals that the monitor can understand. The graphics card interfaces with the monitor through various display connectors, such as HDMI, DisplayPort, or DVI. The monitor then uses these signals to display the rendered images and videos on the screen.

Driver Software

To ensure compatibility and optimal performance, graphics cards require driver software. The driver software acts as a bridge between the operating system and the graphics card, facilitating communication and providing necessary instructions. Graphics card manufacturers regularly release driver updates to improve performance, fix bugs, and add new features.

When a computer sends graphics data to the graphics card, the GPU processes the data according to the instructions provided by the driver software. It performs calculations, applies transformations and effects, and generates a series of frames. These frames are then sent to the monitor, where they are displayed in sequence at a specific refresh rate, resulting in a fluid and visually appealing experience.

What is Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)?


A GPU, which stands for Graphics Processing Unit, is a specialized electronic circuit or chip designed to handle and accelerate the processing of graphics and visual data. It is a crucial component in graphics cards and plays a vital role in rendering images, videos, and animations for display on computer monitors and other output devices.

What does GPU do?

The GPU is specifically optimized to perform complex mathematical calculations and computations required for rendering graphics efficiently. It consists of thousands or even millions of smaller processing units called “cores” that work together to execute tasks simultaneously, enabling parallel processing and high-speed calculations.

In addition to handling graphics-related tasks, modern GPUs are also utilized for general-purpose computing through technologies such as CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) or OpenCL (Open Computing Language). This allows GPUs to assist in accelerating various non-graphics tasks, including scientific simulations, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and cryptocurrency mining.

Compared to the computer’s central processing unit (CPU), GPUs excel at performing parallel computations due to their architecture optimized for handling large sets of data simultaneously. This makes them highly effective in tasks that involve massive data processing, such as 3D rendering, video editing, gaming, and other computationally intensive applications.

Overall, the GPU’s specialized design and processing capabilities make it a crucial component in modern computing systems, enabling high-performance graphics rendering and accelerating a wide range of computational tasks.

Use of GPU

Generally, GPUs are used to drive high-quality gaming experience and graphic design. However, there are many business applications who are depended on strong graphic chips. When compared to earlier, GPU has become more programmable giving them the potential to speed up a wide range of applications that go beyond conventional graphics rendering.


Below are some of the applications where the GPUs are used –

What is FPS (Frames Per Second)


FPS stands for Frames Per Second, which is a metric used to measure the smoothness and fluidity of motion in visual content, particularly in video games and videos. Moreover, in the gaming context, FPS represents the number of individual frames or images that are displayed on the screen within one second. It indicates the rate at which unique frames are rendered and updated in a game. A higher FPS value corresponds to a smoother and more responsive gameplay experience.

Detailed About Performance of FPS

The FPS performance is influenced by the capabilities of the graphics card and the processing power of the computer or gaming console. Graphics cards with greater processing capabilities and more powerful hardware can generate and display a higher number of frames per second, resulting in smoother gameplay.

Traditionally, 60 frames per second has been considered the standard FPS in most video games. However, many modern games and gaming systems aim for even higher frame rates, such as 120 FPS or even 240 FPS. Achieving a higher FPS provides a more immersive and realistic gaming experience, particularly in fast-paced games that require quick reactions and smooth motion.

It’s worth noting that the perceived smoothness of gameplay also depends on the refresh rate of the monitor or display device. The refresh rate determines how often the display updates, and it is ideal for the refresh rate to match or exceed the FPS to fully benefit from the higher frame rates.

How Graphics Card Improves FPS?

A graphics card contributes to improving FPS (Frames Per Second) in video games and other visually demanding applications through several key factors:

Enhanced Processing Power

Graphics cards incorporate powerful GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) that are specifically designed for handling graphics-intensive tasks. These GPUs feature numerous cores and optimized architectures, enabling them to efficiently process complex calculations required for rendering graphics. The increased processing power of a graphics card allows it to generate and display a higher number of frames per second, resulting in improved FPS.

Dedicated Graphics Memory

Graphics cards come equipped with their own dedicated video memory, known as VRAM (Video Random Access Memory). This VRAM serves as a dedicated storage space for textures, shaders, and other essential data used in the rendering process.

By having dedicated VRAM, the graphics card reduces the reliance on the system’s main memory (RAM) and facilitates faster access to the necessary data. This faster access allows the graphics card to process the data more swiftly, leading to improved FPS.

Advanced Graphics Settings

A more powerful graphics card can handle more demanding graphics settings in games. Enabling higher resolutions, increased texture quality, anti-aliasing, and other graphical enhancements enhances the visual experience. Although enabling these settings may impact FPS, a powerful graphics card can still maintain smooth gameplay even with more demanding graphical options enabled.

GPU Acceleration

Many modern games and applications employ GPU acceleration, which involves offloading specific computational tasks from the CPU to the GPU. The parallel processing capabilities of the GPU are leveraged to perform tasks such as physics simulations, AI computations, and rendering effects more efficiently. By distributing the workload between the CPU and GPU, overall performance is improved, resulting in higher FPS.


Graphics cards can be overclocked, which involves running them at higher clock speeds than their stock settings. Overclocking the GPU can lead to increased performance and higher FPS in certain scenarios. However, it is essential to monitor temperatures and stability carefully to prevent overheating and system instability.

Multi-GPU Configurations

Some systems support multiple graphics cards working together in configurations such as SLI (Scalable Link Interface) or Crossfire. By combining the processing power of multiple graphics cards, overall performance and potentially higher FPS can be achieved. However, it is worth noting that not all games and applications are optimized for multi-GPU setups, and compatibility and scaling issues may arise.



Below mentioned are some of the advantages of having graphics card for the computers –

Increase in Overall System Performance

Having graphics card in your system increase overall performance. It takes away all the loads off the CPU as the dedicated graphics card does the graphics related tasks. It also makes space for RAM from the graphics data as the dedicated graphics card comes with its own video memory which is much faster than the computer memory.

Increase in Graphics Performance

The exclusive graphics card comes with many features and offers much better performance in graphics applications and software. With the greater accuracy and better performance, the graphics card can run the user’s graphics- based software (Adobe illustrator), photo editing software like photoshop and video editing software. The user can watch full HD movie(108p) and Blu-ray movies in much better quality with a good dedicated graphics card.

Better Gaming Experience

If a user has a decent graphics card in the mid-range of budget, then a user can get latest games on mid to high settings with payable frame rates without any time frame.

Running Multiple Monitors

A user should have a dedicated graphics card in case he wants to run dual or multiple monitors on personal computers. It need not to be an expensive one for multiple monitors setup as an entry level graphics card is sufficient for this kind of task.

Better Driver Support

An exclusive graphics card has better driver support and compatibility when compared to integrated one. This comes handy when a user moves to a different or new operating system or wants to run any software on the personal computer.



Below mentioned are some of the dis-advantages of having graphics card for the computers-


Generally, graphics cards are expensive based on the model. Higher the price, greater the performance of the card will be. Even in some laptops with some exclusive graphic cards are costly when compared to integrated graphics.


The performance always gets effected when there is a high resolution and colours. The system needs to deal with more information and because of which the texts and icons may appear much smaller.


It consumes more power and due to this there is enormous heat generation which over heats the GPU. However, to support this, most of the graphics card comes with 1-3 fans which cools down the GPU up to certain extent. And also, when compared to other devices on the computer, the graphics card consumes more power as it does many processing and calculations. Hence, it draws more power from the power supply unit.


The computers, mainly the laptops become heavier if it is having an exclusive graphics. It is not possible to find ultra-thin laptops with powerful graphics.

Author’s View

Graphic cards are the most indispensable elements in the modern society. Through the graphic cards, social and economic aspects of people improved. In order to reduce the adverse effect, various measures can be put forward like educating the youth on the pros and cons of graphics and how to use them properly. This makes a person using graphic cards do not suffer with negative effects associated with them.  However, it is clear that these graphic cards made human life interesting through entertainment services.

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Chakrasthitha is a B.E (Medical Electronics) and has work experience in MatLab and Lab View Software as Design Engineer at BCS innovations and Manipal hospital as Biomedical Engineer. She is an author, editor and partner at Electricalfundablog.


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